Sugar Tech

Sugar Tech All in One | Sugar Tech Articles

Sugar Tech | Sugar Technology


  1. Clarification section equipment capacity calculations
  2. Phosphoric Acid(H3PO4) in sugar process industry and online calculator to find required dosing quantity in kgs and also find present going condition in PPM.
  3. Raw juice temperature raised upto 70 to 75oC is the 1st step in Sugar processing. For obtaining this temperature follows two to three stages heating with different types of heaters like tubular heater, direct contact heaters and plate type heater by using different heating media. In this article discussed best approach for raw juice heating.
  4. Shell and tube multipass heater design parameters and formulas of construction | Tubular juice heater design formulas with online calculator.
  5. Heat transfer coefficient calculation of liquid liquid tubular heater | Condensate juice heater heat transfer coefficient calculation in sugar industry.
  6. Condensate or Duplex Heater (Liquid- Liquid Heater) heating surface, number of tubes, tube plate dia, pressure drop calculation formulas with online calculation sheet.
  7. Direct Contact Heater (DCH) Important features, formulas and considerations in design calculation with Online calculator.
  8. Plate Heat Exchanger ( PHE ) Theory | PHE Principle and Basic Structure, Functional Description, application, advantages and disadvantages | Single-pass PHE, Multi-pass PHE, Narrow gap PHE, Wide gap PHE | Heat Transfer Coefficient of Plate Heat Exchanger ( PHE )
  9. Juice sulphitor and juice defecator design criteria in sugar cane juice clarification process| Calculation of retention time, dia of the reaction vessel, SO2 gas distribution system, shock lime connection etc.
  10. Juice sulphitation concepts in sugar cane juice clarification | Mechanism and reactions in Juice Sulphitation | Methods in juice sulphitation process | Automatic Control for Juice Sulphitation.
  11. Meaning of sugar cane juice defecation | Methods takes place in juice defecation process and also explained about its reactions with mechanization theory.
  12. Specifications for sulphur | Sulphur melting process in sugar industry | Steam Requirement for sugar melter | Role of E-melt system in sulphur melting.
  13. Accessories of Rotary Vacuum Filter and its operation in sugar industry | Criteria for Efficient Running or Optimization of filter cake sugar Loss | General Causes of mud trouble in Juice Clarifier.
  14. Flocculants used in sugar industry | Flocculants action,properties & advantages in sugar cane juice clarification process | Flocculant solution preparation and dosing requirements with online calculator.
  15. Juice Clarifier Flash Tank design parameters like dia of the flash tank, juice inlet and out line sizing, flash vent pipe sizing ..etc.with online calculation sheet.
  16. Rotary Vacuum Filter Accessories Capacity Calculation |Sugar Tech
    Rotary vacuum filter accessories capacity calculations like mud pump, mud mixer, drum filtering area, vacuum pump, condenser and its pipe lines.
  17. Role of Bagacillo in vacuum filter | bagacillo cyclone Capacity Calculation
    Bagacillo requirement for vacuum filters. Bagacillo screen, blower capacity and its transport line sizing requiement | Bagacillo cyclone design calculation.
  18. Basic concepts of Syrup Clarification System(SCS) and Melt Clarification System(MCS). Also explained its process flow chat, process description, benefits and limitation.. etc .
  19. Syrup and melt clarification system required equipment capacity calculation – Buffer tank Capacity, Syrup or Melt heater, Reaction and Aeration Vessel, Flotation Clarifier.. etc.  Also provided Online Calculator for Chemical Dosing Calculation.
  20. Plate Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Area Calculation


  1. Rillieux’s principles and pressure drops calculation for Multiple Effect Evaporator bodies like Quadruple& Quintuple effect with online calculator.
  2. Definition in steam properties like enthalpy,  sensible heat , latent heat, total heat, supersaturated steam and also given steam table for saturated steam.
  3. Fundamental Concepts of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (OHTC)
    Overall heat transfer coefficient for shell and tube heat exchanger | Fundamental Concepts of OHTC | conduction, convection, radiation and Fouries law.
  4. Flash Vapour Recovery Vessel Design Calculation like siphon height, ascending and descending branch line calculation, Compartment area calculation, flash line dia calculation …Etc.| Flash cigar calculation in sugar industry |Flash vapour calculation.
  5. In this article given formulas for calculate vapour line dia for juice heater and evaporator and also proved online calculator.
  6. Wetting rate concepts and formulas for evaporators calculations | Wetting rate in Robert type evaporators | Wetting rate for Falling Film Evaporators.
  7. Formulas and design consideration parameters in Robert Evaporator Design and also provided online calculation sheet with formulas.
  8. Condenser System and its types (Barometric, multijet, single entry) with design criteria ,Barometric Column height and dia,Condenser Water Requirement.
  9. Formulas for calculating steam Percent cane and heating surface of the individual evaporator bodies in multiple effect evaporator with powerful online calculator.
  10. Condensate Receiving & Condensate Flash Recovery tank design
    Condensate Receiving Tank Dia, vent line size Calculation | Condensate Mound |Condensate Receiving & Condensate Flash Recovery tank design calculation with online calculation sheet.


  1. Capacity Calculation of Pan Section in Sugar Industry | Boiling House Capacity
  2. Calculator to Find liquid volume for vertically mounted cylindrical volume and also find the volume in cylindrical tank partitioned portion.
  3. Formula for evaluating Horizontal Cylinder volume at different levels (vacuum crystallizer volume at different sight).
  4. Three and half massecuite boiling material balance calculation
    Plantation white sugar process industry three and half massecuite boiling scheme calculation | Online calculator for three and half Material balance calculation.
  5. Sugar Factory Material Balance Calculation for 3 m/c Boiling
    Sugar Industry manufacturing section material balance online calculation | Raw and sulphitation sugar factory three massecuite boiling scheme calculation.
  6. C massecuite purity calculation | C grain dropping and C massecuite final purity calculation with required molasses quantity in batch pan | C garin and molasses quantity estimation for C continuous vacuum pan to the give pan capacity | Vapour requirement calculation for continuous pan | Sugar Technology calculations.
  7. B grain purity calculation with their required quantity of molasses | B continuous pan grain and molasses flow rate requirement and massecuite dropping purity calculation | B continuous pan steam requirement | massecuite dropping purity calculation.
  8. Types of Graining Techniques in sugar crystallization process | Pan Boiling . Different types of graining techniques of sugar crystallization process in sugar industry pan boiling. Types of crystallization process like Waiting method, Shock seeding method and True seeding method.
  9. Sugar Seed Slurry Requirement Calculation for B and C massecuite. How to calculate seed slurry quantity while magma prepared in batch pan and it is feed to continuous pan for massecuite production | Online calculator for slurry dosing calculation.
  10. Crystallizer concepts and its application sugar industry massecuite boiling process | The treatment process of the various massecuites like A, B & C | Crystallizer Capacity Calculation.
    Air Cooled Crystallisers, Water Cooled Crystallisers, Batch Type Crystallizers, Continuous crystallizers,
  11. Low Grade massecuite treatment process in sugar industry massecuite boiling process. | Exhaustion for “B” and “C” masseuite. | The ideal condition for a low-grade massecuite to crystallize more sugar from the mother liquor.
  12. The Vertical crystallizers concepts | Vertical crystallizer advantages over the series of crystallizers | Vertical cooling crystallizers Design aspects | Mono Vertical crystallizer (MVC ), Riser type Vertical Crystallizer , Twin Vertical crystallizer | Cooling surface requirement for vertical crystallizer.
  13. Vertical Crystalliser Design Calculation for Sugar Massecuite Cooling.
  14. Vacuum pan design aspects in sugar factory | Batch and continuous Vacuum Pan Calculation in sugar industry
  15. Batch Vacuum Pan Design Calculation
  16. Hydrostatic Pressure in evaporator bodies and Vacuum pans
  17. The Concept of Graining Volume of the Batch Pan
  18. Cooling tower basics calculation formulas | Cooling Tower Efficiency
  19. Surface Condenser Vs Jet Condenser
  20. Molasses cooler design concepts and its water requirement calculation

Centrifugal and Sugar House

  1. Super heated wash water system in batch centrifugal machines – what is super heated water and how to calculate requirement of SHWW to batch centrifugal machines with online calculator.
  2. In this article given formulas for calculate Pan Section Vapour Header and Pan vapour Line Dia and also proved online calculator.
  3. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the batch centrifugal machine capacity and its gravity factor by online calculator.
  4. Sugar Melter Capacity Calculation | Sugar Melting Feed Liquor Calculation

Sugar Lab (QC & Chemical Control)

  1. Formulas for Sugar Industry boiling house stock calculation ( SJM formula, Available Sugar and Available Molasses) with online calculator.
  2. Formulas for Calculating Sugar process industry Daily Manufacturing Report (DMR), chemical control or sugar lab calculation, recovery%cane With online calculation sheet.

Sugar Refinery

1. Methods for Decolourization of Raw melt in Refined sugar Production from raw melt

2. Flow diagram, Filtration process,CO2 Gas scrubbing system for raw melt clarification with carbonation system. Carbonation process in sugar refinery

Effluent Treatment

1. Methods for Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Neutralization cum Equalization, COD/BOD Ratio, Chemical Coagulation and Precipitation, Settling Treatment, Segregation, Monitoring of ET P, Oxidation and Reduction,Disinfection, Adsorption by Activated Carbon, Stripping, Thermal Processes, Tertiary Treatment of Sewage, Removal of Color, Disposal of Solid Wastes.

2. Activated Sludge Process meaning, Principles of operation, Process description, important parameters and features for industrial wastewater treatment.

3. Anaerobic treatment system with chemical reactions for industrial waste water management

4. CSTR | Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Design Criteria | Anaerobic Digester

5. Biomethanation Process for Distillery Spent Wash Treatment 


General Articles

  1. In this post explained concepts of NPSH calculation,NPSHa,NPSHr formulas, Pump cavitation , Pump suction and delivery lines head loss with online calculator .
  2. Pump Affinity Laws for Centrifugal and Positive displacement pumps | Affinity Laws Energy Savings | Pump Affinity Law Online Calculator
  3. Vapour pressure of water | Water Vapour Pressure temperature chart | Vapour pressure of water at different temperatures from 0 oC to 370 oC | Vapour pressure head of liquids calculation for NPSH
  4. Classification of pumps | Types of pumps and their working principles |  Classification of Dynamic Pumps  | Classification of Displacement Pumps
  5. Pump Power Calculation Formula | Specific speed of a centrifugal pump
  6. Pressure Head | Velocity head | Static Suction Head Calculation of PUMP
  7. Explained what is jaggery or Gur, flow chart steps in jaggery making process, and also discussed about Organic Jaggery Vs commercial jaggery.
  8. In this sugar article mainly discus about what is refined sugar,Refined sugar making process, and refined sugar specifications.
  9. Sulphurless sugar concepts in sugar industry | Meaning of Meaning of Sulphurless sugar | Compassion between sulphurless sugar and Plantation white sugar | Sulphurless sugar specification and its production benefits and limitation.
  10. In this sugar article discussed about raw sugar definition, basic steps for raw sugar making process and raw sugar specifications.
  11. Specialty sugar products Like Cube sugar | Candy sugar | Fondant sugars
    Specialty sugars products Like, Brown or soft sugar,Liquid sugars, Confectioner sugar (Powder sugar or Instant sugar), Cube sugar (Nib sugar, Loaf Sugar, Candy sugar (White candy, Brown Candy, Rock Candy sugar, Fondant sugars (Dry fondant sugar by co-crystallization, Dry fondant sugar by micro pulverization, Ready to use Icing Sugar), Amorphous sugars, Natural sugar granules (Molasses Granules, Honey Granules, Maple granules).
  12. In this article explained about definitions of Brown sugar, its different making methods and also given its classification and specifications of different grades of brown sugar. And finally compare the white and brown sugars.
  13. Concepts of milling tandem like Preparatory Index, Primary and secondary extractions, roller grooving, hydraulic load , mill settings, imbibition etc in sugar industry. This article presented by Mr.P.Sita Rama Rao G.M(Engg).
  14. Liquid Sugar Manufacturing Process from sugar cane | Liquid Sucrose (It is almost all sucrose generally at 67% solids) | Liquid Invert (It has 76% solids out of that 55% invert sugar remaining percent having sucrose.)
  15. Cocrystallization concept in sugar industry crystallization process | steps for the preparation of any cocrystallization | Natural Sugar Granules, Molasses Granules, Honey Granules, Maple Granules.
  16. Economizer heating surface and Its Outlet Flue Gas Temperature Calculation in thermal power plants with online calculator.
  17. Terminology of Sugar process industry in centrifugal section like Centrifuging,Pug Mill,Transient Heater,Wash Water system,Sugar Conveyor..etc.
  18. Sugar process industry terminology in crystallization section – viscosity,Final molasses,,Supersaturation coefficient,Strike,Mother liquor,Exhaustion…etc.
  19. Sugar Process Industry Terminology in Clarification section like Imbibition, Bagacillo,Bagasse,Cush Cush,Fiber,Lime,Flocculent,Affination,Raw Juice etc.
  20. General Terminology in sugar process industry – sucrose,sugar,Brix,pol,purity, reducing sugars,invert sugar,Ash content, colour, moisture, starch, Dextran.
  21. Know About How Many Types of Sugars Available like raw sugar, refined sugar, white sugar, jaggery etc.
  22. The complete manufacturing process of double Sulphited sugar from sugar cane |
    It is very much helpful to every sugar technologist to explain the sugar making process to others in simple way | It is one of the good platform to know how to make sugar from sugar cane.
  23. Unit Conversion Factors and Tables for Engineering Design Calculations | Conversion of units in Sugar Industry Equipment Design Calculations.
    Length, Volume, Pressure, Viscosity, Mass Flowrate. Heat Transfer Coefficient, Heat Flux, Temperature, Concentrations, Numbering System …… Etc
  24. Manufacturing Process of Bagasse or Biomass Briquettes,  Calorific values Biomass Briquettes
  25. Opportunities and Need for Switching over to Raw Sugar Production from White Sugar
  26. Ethanol production from various feed-stocks in sugar process | Yield of Ethanol calculation by online calculator