Unit Conversion Factors and Tables for Engineering Design Calculations

Conversion of units in Sugar Industry Equipment Design Calculations

In this page provided some unit conversion factors. It will helpful to sugar industry Capacity and EDD calculations.

unit conversion table | conversion of units of measurement | engineering unit converter | unit conversion list | unit conversion factors | conversions chart |conversion table of units

Length Conversion Factors

1 kilometer (km)  –  1000 meters (m) = 0.62137 miles
1 meter (m)  – 100 centimeter (cm)
1 centimeter (cm)  = 0.001 m = 0.3937 in.
1 micron (μ) –  10-6 m
1 inch = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm = 0.0254 m 
1 inch =  0.08333 ft = 0.02778 yard = 1.578×10-5 millie = 0.25 hand 
1 foot (ft)  – 30.48 cm
1 mile = 1.6093 km = 1609.3 m = 63346 inch
1 mile =  5280 ft = 1760 yard
1 meter  –  39.37 in.
1 kilometer  –  0.6214 mile
1 Ångstrom = 1 Å = 10-10 m = 1×10-8 cm = 1×10-4 μm 
1 Ångstrom = 0.0001 micron = 0.1 mμ = 3.937×10-9 inch
1 yard = 3 ft = 36 inch  
1 yard = 0.9144 m = 5.682×10-4 mile
1  millimete (mm )= 10-3 m  = 0.03937 in = 1000 micron

Volume Conversion Factors

1 liter (l) –  1000cm3
1 liter (l) –  61.02 in3 
1 liter (l) – 0.03532 ft3
1 cubic meter (m3) –  35.32 ft3
1 cubic meter (m3) –  1000 l 
1 cubic foot (ft3) –  7.481 U.S.gal
1 cubic foot (ft3) – 0.02832 m3
1 cubic foot (ft3)  – 28.32 l
1 U.S. gallon (gal) – 231 in3
1 U.S. gallon (gal) – 3.785 l
1 British gallon – 1.201 U.S.gallon 
1 British gallon –  277.4 in3
1 cm3 = 0.061 in3

Velocity  Conversion Factors

1 m/sec = 3.28 Ft/sec = 2.24 m/hr
1 m/sec = 3.6 km/hr = 196.9 Ft/min
1 km/ hr  = 0.91 Ft/sec = 0.62 m/hr
1 km/ hr = 0.278 m/sec = 54.68  Ft/min
1 ft / sec = 60 Ft/hr = 0.0341 m/hr
1 ft / sec = 0.305 m/sec = 1.097 km/hr
1 Yd/min = 3 Ft/min = 0.05 Ft/sec = 0.0341 m/hr
1 Yd/min = 0.0152 m/sec = 0.0549 km/hr
1 m/hr = 0.45 m/sec = 1.609 km/hr
1 m/hr = 1.47 Ft/sec = 88Ft/min

Acceleration Conversion Factors

1 standard gravity  = 9.80665 m/sec2 = 32.17405 ft/sec2 = 386.1 in/sec
1 ft/sec2 = 0.3048 m/sec2 = 30.48 cm/sec2
1 m/sec2 = 3.28084 ft/sec2 = 100 cm/sec2 = 39.37 inch/sec2

 Density  Conversion Factors

1 gm/cm3 = 1 gm/ml = 1000gm/lt = 3785.41 gm/gal
1 gm/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3 = 0.036127 lb/in3 = 62.428 lb/ft3
1 kg / m3 = 0.001 gm/cm3 = 3.7854 gm/gal
1 kg / m3 = 0.062428 lb/ft3 =0.350507 lb/bbl
1 lb/in3 = 27.6799 gm/cm3 = 27679.9 kg/cm3
1 lb/in3 = 1728 lb/ft3 = 104779.8 gm/gal
1 gm/ft3 = 0.016018 gm/ml (or) gm/cm3 = 16.01846 kg/m3
1 gm/ft3 = 0.000579 lb/in3 = 0.133681 lb/ gal

Power Conversion Factors

1.0 watt  =  1.0 joule/second = 3.413 Btu/hr
1.0 kilowatt (kW) = 3413 Btu/hr = 1.341 horsepower
1.0 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.6 MJ = 3413 Btu
1.0 horsepower (hp) = 550 foot-pounds per second = 42.39055 btu/min. = 2544.433 Btu/hr
1.0 horsepower (hp) = 745.7 watts = 0.746 kW = = 178.23 Cal/sec = 10693.8 Cal/min.
1 Btu/hr = 0.000393 hp = 0.01666 Btu/min. = 0.000293 kW = 0.293 Watt (or) joule/sec
1 Btu/min. = 0.02359 hp = 60.0236 Btu/hr = 0.017591 kW = 17.5912 Watt (or) joule/sec

 Energy Conversion Factors

1.0 joule (J) = one Newton applied over a distance of one meter = 1 kg m2/s2
1.0 calorie = 4.187 J
1.0 joule = 0.239 calories (cal)
1.0 gigajoule (GJ)  = 278 kWh
 1.0 British thermal unit (Btu) = 1055 joules (1.055 kJ)
1000 Btu/US gallon = 0.279 megajoules per liter
1000 Btu/lb = 2.33 gigajoules per tonne (GJ/t)

 Pressure Conversion Factors

1 atmosphere  = 29.9213 in Hg = 760mm of Hg = 14.696 PSI or lb/in2
1 atmosphere  = 1.01295 bar = 1.03325 kg/cm2  = 1.01295 x 105  N/m2  
1 bar = 0.9872 atmosphere = 29.54 in Hg = 1.02 kg/cm2
1 bar =1000mbar =14.50 PSI = 750.2838 mm Hg =  1 x 105 Pa or N/m2
1 in Hg = 3.342 x 10-2 atmosphere  = 3.385 x 10-2  bar = 13.598 in water
1 in Hg = 3385 Pa or N/m2 = 0.4912 psi or lb/in2  = 3.4532 x 10-2 kg/cm
1 kg/cm2  = 0.9678 atmosphere  = 0.9804 bar
1 kg/cm2  = 28.958 in Hg  = 393.76 in. water
1 kg/cm2  = 9.804 x 104 Pa or N/m2 = 14.223 psi or lb/in2
1 Pa or N/m2  =  1.020 x 10-5  kg/cm2  = 2.954 x 10-4 in. Hg
1 Pa or N/m2  =  0.01 mbar = 1x  10-5 bar = 1.4508 x 10-4 psi or lb/in
1 psi or lb/in2  =  0.068046 atmosphere  = 0.068948 bar
1 psi or lb/in2  = 7.0309 x 10-2  kg/cm2  = 2.036 in. Hg
1 psi or lb/in2  = 6.8927 x 103 Pa or N/m2   = 51.71 torr or mm Hg
1 mm Hg = 1.3158 x 10-3 atmosphere  = 1.3328 x 10-3 bar
1 mm Hg = 1.3328 mbar = 1.3328 x 10-3 bar
1 mm Hg = 133.28 Pa or N/m2  = 1.934 x 10-2 psi or lb/in

Specific Volume Conversion Factors

1 m3/kg = 1000 lt /kg = 16.02 ft3/lb = 27680 inch3/lb 
1 m3/kg  = 119.8 gal(US)/lb = 99.7764 gal(UK)/lb
1 liter /kg = 0.01602 ft3/lb = 27.7 inch3/lb  = 0.001 m3/kg
1 liter /kg  = 0.12 gal(US)/lb 
1 inch3/lb = 0.00058 ft3/lb = 0.0043 gal(US)/lb = 0.036 liter/kg = 3.6 x 10-5 m3/kg
1 ft3/lb  = 7.4805 gal(US)/lb = 6.22884  gal(UK)/lb
1 ft3/lb = 1728 inch3/lb   = 62.43 liter/kg = 0.062 m3/kg
1 gal(UK)/lb = 1.2010 gal(US)/lb 
1 gal(US)/lb = 0.83267 gal(UK)/lb

Force and Torque Conversion Factors

1 Pound ( lb) = 4.448 Newtons ( N)
1 dyne  = 1×10-5 N  = 1 gm. cm/s2
1  Newtons ( N) = 1 kg m /s2 = 0.2248 1 Pound ( lb) = 105 dyne
1 newton – meter ( N – m) = 0.7376 Pound – feet ( lb – ft)
1 newton – meter ( N – m) =8.851 Pound – inches ( lb – in)
1  Pound – inches ( lb – in) = 0.0833 Pound – feet ( lb – ft)
1  Pound – inches ( lb – in) = 0.007062 newton – meter ( N – m)
1 Pound – feet ( lb – ft) = 12 Pound – inches ( lb – in)
1 Pound – feet ( lb – ft) = 1.356   newton – meter ( N – m)

 Dynamic Viscosity Conversion Factors

1 centipoise = 1 gm / cm . Sec
1 centipoise = 0.01 poise = 0.001 Pa . Sec
1 centipoise = 2.4191 lb/ ft .hr = 0.000672 lb / ft .sec
1 centipoise = 1 gm / cm . Sec = 3.6 kg /m .hr
1 Poise = 100 centipoise = 0.1 pa .sec
1 poise = 241.909 lb/ ft .hr = 0.067197 lb / ft .sec
1 poise = 100 gm / cm . Sec = 360 kg /m .hr
1 Pa .sec  = 10 poise =   2419.088 lb/ ft .hr = 0.67197 lb / ft .sec
1 Pa . Sec  = 1000 gm / cm . Sec = 3600 kg /m .hr
1 lb/ ft .hr = 0.413379 centipoise = 0.000413 Pa. sec = 1.488 kg/ m.hr
1 lb/ ft .sec  = 1488.164 centipoise = 14.88164 poise =1.488164 Pa. sec = 5357.39 kg/ m.hr
1 kg /m .hr = 0.277778 centipoise = 0.671969 lb / ft. hr = 0.000187 lb / ft .sec

Kinematic Viscosity Conversion Factors

1 stoke = 1 cm2 / sec
1 centistoke = 0.01 stoke = 1.08 x 10 -5 ft2 /sec = 0.03875 ft2 /hr = 10-7 m2/sec = 0.0036 m2 /hr
1 stoke = 100 centistoke = 1.076 x 10 -3 ft2 /sec = 3.875 ft2 /hr = 10-4 m2/sec = 0.36 m2 /hr
1 ft2 /sec = 929.0304 stoke = 3600 ft2 /hr = 0.092903 m2/sec = 334.451 m2 /hr
1 ft2 /sec = 0.258064 stoke = 2.78 x 10-4 ft2 /sec =2.58 x 10-5 m2/sec = 0.092903 m2 /hr
1 m2/sec = 10000 stoke = 10.76391 ft2/sec = 38750.08 ft2 /hr = 3600 m2 /hr
1 m2/ hr  = 2.7777 stoke = 10.7639 ft2/hr = 0.0029899 ft2 /hr = 2.77 x 10-4 m2 /sec

 Mass Flowrate Conversion Factors

1 kg /sec = 2.204622 lb /sec = 132.2774 lb /min. = 7936.64 lb/hr
1 kg /sec = 59.999 kg/ min. = 3600 kg/hr.
1 lb/sec = 60 lb/min. = 0.453592 kg/ sec = 27.21554 kg/min. = 1632.933 kg/hr
1 lb/min. = 0.16667 lb /sec = 1440 lb/day = 0.00756 kg/sec = 0.453592 kg/min.

Heat Transfer Coefficient Conversion Factors

 1 watt /m2 /oC = 1 watt/m2/oK
1 Kcal/ hr/ m2/oC = 0.204816 Btu / hr/ ft2 /oF = 2.78 x 10-5 cal/sec/cm2/oC
1 Kcal/ hr/ m2/oC =0.000116 watt/cm2 /oC = 1.163 watt/m2/oC
1 Btu / hr/ ft2 /oF =0.000136 cal/sec/cm2/oC = 4.8824 Kcal/ hr/ m2/oC
1Btu/hr/ft2/oF = 0.000568 watt/cm2 /oC = 5.678 watt/m2/oC
1 Watt / m2/oC = 0.17611 Btu / hr/ ft2 /oF = 2.39 x 10-5 cal/sec/cm2/oC
1 watt / m2 /oC = 0.859845 Kcal/ hr/ m2/oC  = 0.0001 watt /cm2/oC

Thermal Conductivity Conversion Factors

1 Kcal /hr/m/oC = 0.671969 Btu/hr/ft/oF = 0.002778 cal/sec/cm/oC
1 Kcal /hr/m/oC = 0.01163 Watt /cm/oC = 1.163 watt/m/oC
1 Btu/hr/ft/oF = 4.134 x 10-3 cal/sec/cm/oC = 1.488 Kcal/hr/m/oC
1 Btu/hr/ft/oF =  0.0173 watt/cm/oC = 1.73 watt/m/oC
1 Watt / m/oC = 0.5777 Btu / hr/ ft /oF = 2.39 x 10-3 cal/sec/cm/oC
1 watt / m/oC = 0.859845 Kcal/ hr/ m/oC  = 0.01 watt /cm /oC
1 Watt /cm /oC =57.778  Btu / hr/ ft /oF = 0.23884 cal/sec/cm/oC
1 watt / cm /oC = 85.9845 Kcal/ hr/ m/oC  = 100 watt / m /oC

 Heat Flux Conversion Factors

1 Kcal/ hr/ m2 = 0.368669 Btu / hr/ ft2 = 2.78 x 10-5 cal/sec/cm2
1 Kcal/ hr/ m2 =0.000116 watt/cm2  = 1.163 watt/m2
1 Btu / hr/ ft2  = 7.5346 x 10-5 cal/sec/cm2/oC = 2.71246  Kcal/ hr/ m2
1Btu/hr/ft2 = 3.154 x 10 -4 watt/cm2  = 3.1546  watt/m2
1 Watt / m2 = 0.31699  Btu / hr/ ft2  = 2.39 x 10-5 cal/sec/cm2
1 watt / m2 = 0.859845 Kcal/ hr/ m2  = 0.0001 watt /cm2

Specific Energy Conversion Factors

1 cal/kg = 0.0018 Btu /lb = 0.001 cal /gm
1 cal/kg = 0.004187 joule /gm = 4.1868 joule /kg
1 Joule /kg = 4.299 x 10-4 Btu/lb = 2.388 x 10-4 cal/gm
1 Joule /kg = 0.001 joule /gm = 0.23884 cal/kg
1 Btu /lb = 0.5555 cal/gm = 555.55 cal/kg
1 Btu/ lb = 2.326 joule /gm = 2326 joule /kg

 Specific Heat Conversion Factors

1 cal / gm /oC = 1 Btu/ lb/ oF
1 cal /kg /oC = 0.001 Btu/ lb/ oF = 4.1868 joule/ kg/oC  = 0.004187 joule/  gm/ oC
1 joule/ kg/ oC = 2.388 x 10-4 Btu /lb /oF =  0.2388 cal /kg/oC = 0.001 joule/ gm/ oC
1 Btu/ lb/ oF =  1000 cal /kg/oC = 4186.8 joule /kg/oC

Temperature Conversion Formulas

Degrees Fahrenheit – F
Degrees  Celsius – C
Degrees  Rankin – R
Degrees  Kelvin – K
 C = 5/9 (F – 32 )
F =  (9/5)C + 32
R = F + 459.69
K = C + 273.16

Frequency

1Hz ( hertz) =  1 cps ( cycle/second )

Angular Distance Conversion Factors

1 Degree = 60 minutes = 3600 Seconds = 0.07145 Radians

 Stress Conversion Factors

1 N/m2 = 1 Pa = 10-6 N/mm2 = 1.4504×10-4 lb/in2
1 psi (lb/in2) = 144 psf (lb/ft2)
1 psi (lb/in2)  = 6894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895×10-3 N/mm2

 Sound pressure level

1 bel = 1.15129 neper
1 decibel =  0.11529 neper
1 neper  = 8.68589 decibel
0.02 pascal = 60 decibel

Rotation Conversion Factors

1 deg/min = 0.043 Hz = 0.01745 rad/min = 1.047 rad/h = 0.002778 rpm = 4  revolutions/day
1 Hz = 1  revolutions /second = 1 cycle/second = 60 rpm = 2π radians/second
1 Hz  = 6.28 radians/second = 22619 radians/hour = 360 degree/sec
1 revolutions/ second  = 1 Hz = 1 cycle/second  = 60 rpm = 360 deg/s
1  radians/hour  = 4.42×10-5 Hz = 2.65×10-3 rpm = 0.9549 deg/min
1 radians/second  =  0.159 cycle/second  = 9.549 rpm = 57.30 deg/sec

Concentrations

1 milligram/Liter  – 1 PPM (part per million)

1 microgram/Liter – 1 PPB (part per billion)

1 nanogram/Liter – 1 PPT (part per trillion)

Numbering System

Prefix Symbol Numerically   Name
Tera T 1 000 000 000 000 1012 Trilion
Giga
G 1 000 000 000  109 billion
Mega M 1 000 000  106 million
Kilo k 1 000  103 Thousand
Hecto h 1 00 102 Hundred
Centi c 0.01  10-2 hundredth
Milli m 0.001  10-3 thousandth
Micro μ 0.000 001  10-6 millionth
Nano n 0.000 000 001  10-9 billionth
Pico p 0.000 000 000 001 10-12 billion

 
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Post Author: siva alluri

The aim of this Blog "sugarprocesstech" is Providing basic to advance knowledge in sugar process industry and providing maximum calculation regarding capacity and equipment design online calculators .

2 thoughts on “Unit Conversion Factors and Tables for Engineering Design Calculations

    Neeraj kumar rajput

    (May 10, 2018 - 7:32 pm)

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      siva alluri

      (May 13, 2018 - 4:48 pm)

      Mr. Neeraj kumar rajput
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