Refined Sugar Manufacturing Process
- 1 Refined Sugar Manufacturing Process
- 1.1 Mainly sugars can be classified as.
- 1.2 What is refined sugar:
- 1.3 Refined sugar Vs White sugar:
- 1.4 Types of Refined Sugar manufacture:
- 1.5 Flow Chart of Refined Sugar Process
- 1.6 Basic Steps in Refined Sugar Making Process:
- 1.7 Specification of Refined Sugar:
In this sugar article mainly discussing about what is refined sugar, Refined sugar making process, basic steps for making refined sugar and refined sugar specifications.
Mainly sugars can be classified as.
What is refined sugar:
Refined Sugar is produced by sugar cane or beet via raw sugar. (i.e From sugar cane or beet, first produced raw sugar by ordinary process known as Defecation process. Then raw Sugar is following further process like melting, clarification and decolourization to produced refined sugar.)
Refined sugar Vs White sugar:
Refined sugar is better than plantation white sugar because it contain less impurities, less colour value of ICUMSA. As well as it is suitable for long time storage.
Types of Refined Sugar manufacture:
There are two types of sugar refineries.
- Refineries operating in conjunction with raw sugar factory.
- Independent refineries which purchase raw sugar from raw sugar factories. Independent refinery called stand alone refinery.
Flow Chart of Refined Sugar Process
It is a process for higher colour Raw Sugar. For good quality raw sugar there is no need to doing this process. The main aim of affination process is to obtain affinated sugar over 99 purity & containing minimum colour and ash. In this process above 60% colour is removed mechanically depending on input colour of raw sugar.
Raw sugar (low colour & good quality) or Affinated raw sugar is melted to 60 to 65o Bx in a special melter.
Clarification process helps to removing impurities and eliminates maximum colour of melt. Generally refineries are following two types of clarification processes. They are
a )Melt Phosfloatation
b) Melt Carbonation
The Clarified melt passed through adsorption columns which are made up of different types of colour absorbents like granular activated carbon namely lead & trail column. The liquor coming out from leaf column is known as intermediate liquor which pumped again to top of trail column. The liquor coming out from trail column is termed as decolouried or fine liquor . The following colour absorbents also used in decolourization process. For further decolourisation & demineralization after filtration this melt treated with different types, such as
- Granular Activated Carbon
- Powdered carbon
- Bone char / Bone black
- Synthod – 38
- Ion exchange resins
Crystalisation and centrifuging:
The fine or decolourized liquor is feeding to first massecuite and syrup separated from this massecuite is using as feed for second boiling, syrup from second boiling is feeding for third massecuite boiling, and so on. White massecuites (R1, R2 & R3 grades) are discharged from vacuum pans to enclosed receiver and then sent to white centrifugal machines for crystal and molasses separation.
Drying ,Cooling :
Wet sugar from white centrifugal were conveyed through hoppers for the process of sugar drying-cooling. These hoppers having hot and cold air arrangements. The sugar comes from hoppers to be maintain less than 40°C temperature and moisture having less than 0.04%. Sugar have conveyed to a vibratory screen for lump separation and then followed by gradation process in sugar grader.
Sugar from bins automatically weighed and filled in bags and sewn in automatic or manual sewing machine. Packed bags have transported by belt conveyor to sugar warehouse and stacked manually or automatically.
Specification of Refined Sugar:
Refined Sugar Specifications (II REVISION) In INDIAN STANDARD IS 1151:2003
|1||Loss on drying %by mass (Max)||0.05%|
|3||RS% by mass (Max)||0.04|
|4||Conductivity Ash% by mass (Max)||0.04|
|5||Color ICUMSA unit (Max)||60 IU|
|6||SO2 Content mg/kg (Max)||15 PPM|
|7||Lead mg/kg (Max.)||0.5|
|8||Chromium mg/kg (Max)||20|
Specification of Refined Sugar as per European Economic Community (EEC) – sugar grade
|1||Pol % (min)||99.7||99.7||99.7|
|2||Moist. % (max)||0.06||0.06||0.06|
|3||RS % (max)||0.04||0.04||0.04|
|4||Ash % (max)||0.011||0.02||NS|
|5||Color % (max)in ICUMSA||22.5||45||NS|
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Liquid Sugar Manufacturing Process from sugar cane | Liquid Sucrose (It is almost all sucrose generally at 67% solids) | Liquid Invert (It has 76% solids out of that 55% invert sugar remaining percent having sucrose.)