## Hydrostatic Pressure in evaporator bodies | Hydrostatic Head in Vacuum pans

This article discuss about hydrostatic pressure definition and its calculation and also hydrostatic head in robert type evaporator bodies  and vacuum pans Hydrostatic Head in Evaporator Bodies and Vacuum Pans Hydrostatic pressure head definition When a pressure ” P” is exerted on the surface of a liquid, the pressure to which the molecules of the […]

## Cooling tower basics calculation formulas | Cooling Tower Efficiency

In this article explained about basic concepts of cooling tower, types of cooling towers, formula for cooling tower efficiency. Also brief about Cooling tower mass balance  of make-up water requirement in system, Drift Losses or Windage, Evaporation losses & Blowdown or Draw off. Types of cooling tower | Cooling Tower Basic Calculations Cooling towers are […]

## Water Cooling System | Difference Between Cooling Tower and Spray Pond

In this article explained about Terms in cooling system,  Design specification of cooling system and formula for Cooling System Efficiency. Finally discussed about difference between spray pond and cooling tower Design specification of cooling system | Cooling Tower | Spray Pond Condensing and cooling system plays a major role in sugar industry process house. Essential Terms […]

## Surface Condenser | Difference Between Jet Condenser and Surface Condenser

In this article described about the water requirement calculation for condenser, difference between direct contact and surface condenser & Types of surface condenser and its application Condenser Water Requirement Calculation | Types of Surface Condensers In sugar Industry Condensers and cooling systems are used in boiling process to create vacuum in pans and evaporators. The […]

## Plate Heat Exchanger Theory | PHE Structure and Functional Description

Plate Heat Exchanger Working | PHE Application in Sugar Industry Process Plate Heat Exchanger were first Introduced in the 1920s. Now it is widely used in a great number of sectors like sugar industry, pharmaceutical industry, food processing industries.. etc . PHE Principle and Basic Structure: The plate type heat exchanger is a pack of […]

## Condensate Receiving Tank Design Calculation | Condensate Mound

Condensate Receiving & Condensate Flash Recovery tank design Abstract : Condensate receiving tank or condensate mound is one of the simple equipment in sugar industry and other process industries. If we provide common condensate flash recovery tank then no need to provide individual mounds for each evaporation or heating bodies like juice heaters, evaporator bodies, […]

## Flash Vapour Calculation | Flash Vapour Recovery Vessel Design Calculation

Condensate flash vapour recovery system calculation with example What is Flash Vapour: The liquid suddenly passing from high pressure to low pressure condition then produces a spontaneous evaporation without any external heat energy it is called “flash” or flash vapour. The flash vapour recovery is one of the important energy conservation system in all process […]

## Overall heat transfer coefficient for shell and tube heat exchanger

Fundamental  Concepts of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (OHTC) In shell and tube type heat exchanges  overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC ) is product of the three factors mainly. They are Tube inside liquid media film coefficient , Shell side heating media film coefficient and metal wall resistance. Heat transfer is the science which deals with […]

## Wetting rate | factor | in Robert, kestner & Falling Film Evaporators

Concept and formulas for Wetting number or Wetting rate or wetting factor  in Evaporators Wetting rate : Sufficient wetting rate of the heating surface by liquid is extremely important for  trouble free operation. Apart from the heating tube dimensions, it is very important to choose a suitable distribution device to achieve full wetting. Due to […]

## Concepts in Condenser System (Vacuum Equipment)

Condenser System for vacuum creations and its types with design criteria Condenser system and vacuum equipment are common to evaporators and vacuum pans. Nearly all these vessels use direct contact condensers, where the cooling water comes into direct contact with the vapour to be condensed. Creation of Vacuum: a) In  a condenser, we condense large […]

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