Contents
Pan Section Capacity Calculation in Sugar Industry | Crystallization
Sugar crystallization process takes place in pan section of sugar plant. The equipment supply tanks, Batch/continuous pans, condensers, molasses conditioners, spray pond, crystallizers fall under pan section.
Capacity of Batch/Continuous pans
The boiling times considered for A, B & C massecuites are 4 hours, 6hours and 8 hours respectively . For refinery massecuite,2 to 3 hours is considered.
Example:
Crushing Capacity of the plant = 230 TCH
“A” massecuite%cane = 25 to 30%
“B” massecuite%cane = 12 to 13%
“C” massecuite%cane = 6 to 8%
” A” Massecuite Quantity = 230 x 30% = 69 T/hr = 1656 T/day
” B” Massecuite Quantity = 230 x 13% = 30 T/hr = 720 T/day
” C” Massecuite Quantity = 230 x 8% = 18.5 T/hr = 444 T/day
While considering batch pans with 60 Ton capacity each
Massecuite | Boiling Hours | No. of strikes per day per pan | Quantity of massecuite per strike in Ton | No. of pans required |
A | 4 | 24 hours/4 = 6 | 1656/6 = 276 | 276/60 ≈ 5 nos. |
B | 6 | 24 hours/6 = 4 | 720/4 = 180 | 180/60 = 3 nos. |
C | 8 | 24 hours/8 = 3 | 444/3 = 148 | 148/60 ≈ 3 nos. |
While considering Continuous pans for all massecuite boilings
For continuous pans, 10% to 20% extra capacity is to be considered.
From the above
For ” A” Continuous Pan = 69 T/hr x 110% ≈ 76 T/hr
For ” B” Continuous Pan = 30 T/hr x 120% ≈ 35 T/hr
For ” C” Continuous Pan = 18.5 T/hr x 120% ≈ 22 T/hr
Grain and Molasses ratio for A, B & C massecuites is generally taken as follows ( It depends on grain size and purity of material)
“A” Grain to Liquor (syrup/melt/AL) ratio – 1 : 1 to 2
“B” Grain to Liquor (A heavy) ratio – 1 : 2 to 3
“C” Grain to Liquor (B heavy/ C light) ratio – 1 : 3 to 4
B massecuite purity online calculation sheet | Sugar Technology
C massecuite final purity calculation |Grain Quantity requirement for C CVP
Massecuite | Boiling Hours | No. of strikes per day per pan | Quantity of grain required in Ton | Quantity of massecuite per strike in Ton | No. of pans required |
A Grain | 4 | 24/4 = 6 | 1656/2 = 828 | 828/6 = 138 | 138/60 = 2.3 (70T x 2 nos.) |
B Grain | 6 | 24/6 = 4 | 720/3 = 240 | 240/4 = 60 | 60/60 = 1 no. |
C Grain | 8 | 24/8 = 3 | 444/4 = 111 | 111/3 = 148 | 37/60 ≈ 1 no. |
Thumb rules for finding the capacities of batch/continuous pans
Note: It is not accurate capacity but it gives approximate value instantly
Batch pans
“A” Batch pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.06 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.06 = 300 T )
“B” Batch pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.04 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.04 = 160 T )
“C” Batch pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.03 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.03 = 150 T )
Continuous pans
“A” Continuous pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.014 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.015 = 75 T/hr )
“B” Continuous pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.006 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.006 = 30 T /hr)
“C” Continuous pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.004 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.004 = 20 T /hr)
“A” Grain pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.025 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.025 = 125 T )
“B” Grain pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.01 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.01 = 50 T )
“C” Grain pan capacity in Ton – TCD x 0.01 ( Ex: 5000 x 0.01 = 50 T )
Low Grade Massecuite Treatment in Sugar Crystallization Process
Sugar Seed Slurry Requirement Calculation for B and C massecuite
Types of Graining Techniques in sugar crystallization process | Pan Boiling
Pan Supply Tanks
“A” massecuite feeding liquor (syryp/melt/A light) consider minimum 2 hours retention time
“B” massecuite feeding liquor (A Heavy) consider minimum 3 hours retention time
“C” massecuite feeding liquor ( B heavy/ C light) consider minimum 4 hours retention time
Example:
Crushing Capacity of the plant = 230 TCH
Syrup % cane – 25 to 30%
Melt % cane – 12 to 14%
A light %cane- 2 to 3%
A heavy%cane- 12 to 15%
B heavy%cane – 6 to 7%
C light%cane – 2 to 3%
Syrup + melt + A light = 43% (average) = 230 x 43% ≈ 100 T/hr
High grade massecuite supply tanks capacity = 100 x 2 hours = 200 / 1.25(density) = 160 M^{3} = 1600 HL
A heavy molasses quantity = 230 x 15% = 34.5 T/hr
A heavy supply tanks capacity = 34.5 x 3 hours = 103.5 / 1.3(density) ≈ 80 M^{3} = 800 HL
B heavy + C light molasses quantity = 230 x 10% = 23 T/hr
A heavy supply tanks capacity =23 x 4 hours = 92 / 1.3(density) ≈ 70 M^{3} = 700 HL
Thumb rules for finding the capacities of supply tanks in pan section
High grade massecuite feed materials ( Syrup + melt + A light ) supply tanks capacity in HL = TCH x ( 7 to 8)
Low grade massecuite feed materials ( A Heavy + B heavy + C light ) supply tanks capacity in HL = TCH x ( 7 to 8)
Molasses Conditioners capacity
For its capacity, consider extra 10 to 20% on molasses production
Example:
Crushing Capacity of the plant = 230 TCH
A heavy%cane- 12 to 15%
B heavy%cane – 6 to 7%
C light%cane – 3 to 4%
A heavy molasses quantity = 230 x 15% = 34.5 T/hr
A heavy molasses conditioner capacity = 34.5 x 110% = 38 T/hr
B heavy molasses quantity = 230 x 7% = 16.1 T/hr
B heavy molasses conditioner capacity = 16.1 x 110% = 18 T/hr
C light molasses quantity = 230 x 4% = 9.2 T/hr
C Light molasses conditioner capacity = 9.2 x 110% = 11 T/hr
Capacity calculation of crystallizers
Crystallizers are used for cooling and holding of the massecuite. Air cooled type crystallizers are used for high grade massecuites, receiving crystallizers of continuous pans and for seed crystallizer. Water cooled crystallizers are used for low grade massecuites for proper cooling and better exhaustion.
A – Massecuite – ( 2 hours cooling purpose + 2 hours curing purpose) – Air cooled
B – Massecuite – ( 6 to 8 hours cooling purpose + 3 hours curing purpose) – Air cooled + water cooled
C – Massecuite – ( 20 to 24 hours cooling purpose + 4 hours curing purpose) – Air cooled + water cooled
Each crystallizer capacity should be 10 to 15% more than the existing pan capacity.
For example, if a 60 T (42 m³) pan is considered, then the capacity of crystallizer can be taken as 70 T (48 m³).
For an air cooled type crystallizers is considered for “C’ massecuite then cooling time can go upto 72 hours. So, proper design of cooling elements used in crystallizers enables the cooling time to come down to 18 to 24 hours.
Application of Crystallizers in Sugar Industry | Crystallizer Capacity Calculation
Example:
Crushing Capacity of the plant = 230 TCH
“A” massecuite%cane = 25 to 30%
“B” massecuite%cane = 12 to 13%
“C” massecuite%cane = 6 to 8%
” A” Massecuite Quantity = 230 x 30% = 69 T/hr
” B” Massecuite Quantity = 230 x 13% = 30 T/hr
” C” Massecuite Quantity = 230 x 8% = 18.5 T/hr
Crystallizer capacity for “A” massecuite
Quantity of “A” massecuite for (2+2) hrs = 69 x 4 = 276 Tons ≈ 300 Ton
Total volume of “A” crystallizers = 300 /1.45 = 206 M^{3} = 2060 HL ( sp.gr =1.45 )
So total capacity split is into number of crystallizers and each crystallizer shall have 10 to 15% more capacity than that of the pan. Generally, total capacity of “A” massecuite crystallizers are made equal to total capacity of “A” pans.
Capacity of “B” massecuite Crystallizer
Quantity of “B” massecuite for (7+3) hrs = 30 x 10 = 300 Tons
Total volume of “B” crystallizers = 300 /1.5 = 200 M^{3} = 2000 HL ( sp.gr =1.5 )
The total capacity is split into water cooled and air cooled crystallizers in the ratio of 7 : 3 or 8 : 2
Crystallizer capacity for “C” massecuite
Quantity of “C” massecuite for (24 +4) hrs = 18.5 x 28 = 518 Tons ≈ 550 Ton
Total volume of “C” crystallizers = 550 /1.5 = 370 M^{3} = 3700 HL ( sp.gr =1.5 )
The total capacity is split into water cooled and air cooled crystallizers in the ratio of 8 : 1
Vertical Crystalliser Design Calculation for Sugar Massecuite Cooling
Concepts of Vertical Crystallizer in Sugar Plant | Mono Vertical Crystallizer
Vacuum crystallizers :
The capacity of Vacuum crystallizer for A, B & C massecuites should be equal to the capacity of existing batch pans used for grain/footings of the massecuite. usually, one crystallizer per massecuite is considered.
Capacity of condenser
Coefficients of Evaporation rate for batch pans depend on the purity of material and hydro-static head of the massecuite. Hence, if the massecuite level increases in pan then evaporation rate will be decreased.
As per Mr. E.Hugot, the evaporation rates in kg/m² /hr are as follows
Initial | Final | |
Footing Pan | 85 | 17 |
A-Masseccutie | 71 | 32 |
B-Masseccutie | 46 | 11 |
C-Masseccuite | 36 | 17 |
For the purpose of condenser capacity calculations, batch pan evaporation rates are to be considered between 50 to 60 in kg/m² /hr and for continuous pans between 20 to 30 kg/m² /hr
Average evaporation rate in Batch Pans
A massecuite – 60 kg/m² /hr ,
B massecuite – 55 kg/m² /hr &
Cmassecuite – 50 kg/m² /hr
Average evaporation rate in Continuous pans
A massecuite – 30 kg/m² /hr ,
B massecuite – 25 kg/m² /hr &
C massecuite – 20 kg/m² /hr
Example:
If the heating surfaces of a 60 MT batch pan is 282 m², then the condenser capacity required is
282 m² x 50 kg/m² /hr = 14100 kg/hr ≈ 14.1 T/hr
If the heating surfaces of a 35 MT/hr continuous pan is 650 m² , then the condenser capacity required is
650 m^{2} x 25 kg/m² /hr = 16200 kg/hr ≈ 16 T/hr
Injection water System and Condensers
The vapour condensation quantity is that of vapour from pan section and evaporator last effect.
Vapour produced from pan section = 18 to 25% on cane ( For back-end refinery plants, it goes upto 28% on cane)
Vapour produced from last effect evaporator body = 5 to 8 % on cane
Water required for condensing the vapour calculated on the basis of cooling water ratio.
= Total heat of the vapour = 621 Kcal/kg @ 55 ^{0}C
Definitions in Steam Properties and Online Steam Table For Saturated steam
To = Condenser outlet warm water temperature in ^{0}C
Ti = Condenser inlet cold water temperature in ^{0}C
Example:
Crushing Capacity of the plant = 230 TCH
To = Condenser outlet warm water temperature = 47 ^{0}C
Ti = Condenser inlet cold water temperature = 36 ^{0}C
So, Total vapour quantity for condensing = 230 x 33% = 80 T/hr
Cooling water ratio = (621 – 47) / (47 – 36) = 52.2 T/hr
i.e, 52.2 tons of water is required for One ton of vapour.
Total water required for condenser = 80 x 52.2 = 4176 T/hr
Condenser System for vacuum creation and their types with design criteria
Injection water pump capacity
Operating Injection water pump capacity = 4000 M^{3}/hr
Installed Injection water pump capacity = 50 % more than the requirement = 4000 x 150% = 6000 M^{3}/hr
( Split the total capacity into 2 x 50% capacity of the pumps and 1 x 50% as a standby)
Spray pond capacity
Theoretically, 750 kg/hr of warm water requires 1 m² of area of spray pond.
As per the latest trends of designs, 900 to 1000kg/hr of warm water requires 1 m^{2} area of spray pond.
Spray Pond area required = 4000M3/hr / 900 kg/hr
= 4000 x 1000 / 900 = 4444 m^{2} ≈ 4500 m^{2}
Sugar Plant Capacity Calculation
Pan Section
Centrifugal section & Sugar House
28 thoughts on “Capacity Calculation of Pan Section in Sugar Industry | Boiling House Capacity”
Vinod Kumar Mishra
(July 29, 2018 - 4:15 pm)Very very good sir
siva alluri
(August 13, 2018 - 2:37 pm)Thank you Mr.Vinod Kumar Mishra
Aravind
(August 11, 2018 - 2:16 pm)Dear sir your website is very useful for sugar workers . I calculate evaporator vapour bleeding caculation but I get X valve -3.14 then how to further caculation plz help me sir
siva alluri
(August 13, 2018 - 2:46 pm)Dear Mr.Aravind
X value comes “-ve” means availability of vapour is less when compare to bleeding vapour so it is not possible.
i.e As per our bleed vapour not matching to vapour generation
So we can do for getting positive value
1. Increase the juice % cane ( increase imbibition % or use DCH .. like)
2. Increase the evaporator syrup brix ( i.e evaporation % to be increased across the set)
3. Decrease the bleed vapour ( Like reduced the steam demand for pans section )
Aravind
(August 15, 2018 - 8:48 am)Thank u sir
gurursharan kumbar
(September 14, 2018 - 11:44 am)stem balance is minimum, so flash tank vapour is used to 1 st heating for shulpher juice
Vilas patil
(September 16, 2018 - 11:34 am)Dear sir your website very very useful for sugar workers & very very thaks
siva alluri
(September 16, 2018 - 1:41 pm)Thank you Mr. Vilas Patil
Ishant Kumar Srivastava
(October 12, 2021 - 5:41 am)How we calculate steam coil and its number of holes and hole size of Molasses conditioner???
siva alluri
(January 2, 2022 - 8:40 am)1. First calculate quantity of steam required (in t/hr) for the conditioning of molasses. By using simple formula of Q = M Cp ΔT
Here Q = steam quantity in T/hr
M = Flow rate of molasses in T/hr
Cp = Specific heat of molasses ( Avg 0.65 Kcal/kg/oC)
ΔT = Temperature difference of the inlet and outlet molasses
2. According to that we can easily calculate the steam inlet line dia as per the following links.
https://www.sugarprocesstech.com/vapour-line-dia-evaporator/
https://www.sugarprocesstech.com/pan-vapour-line-dia/
https://www.sugarprocesstech.com/steam-properties/
3. We can calculate the number of holes required for steam coil after arriving of steam inlet pipe line dia . (Here considered hole dia is 5mm and total area of the all holes is greater than 20% of the cross section area of the steam inlet pipe line)
Phalphale shivaji bhanudas
(October 4, 2018 - 1:46 pm)Please publish article on saveall design especially vens size , vapour velocity in saveall
Vishvanath
(October 11, 2018 - 7:16 am)Nice information about this Pan section.I like it
siva alluri
(October 12, 2018 - 4:07 pm)Thank you Mr.Vishvanath
Abbas Sayyad
(March 25, 2019 - 10:53 am)Very useful information.
siva alluri
(April 1, 2019 - 3:46 pm)Thank you Abbas Sayyad
PRADEEP PATEL
(September 7, 2019 - 6:08 pm)Very useful practice information
siva alluri
(September 10, 2019 - 1:10 pm)Welcome Mr.PRADEEP PATEL
PRADEEP RAJPUT
(July 24, 2020 - 9:19 am)Sir This website very nice
siva alluri
(August 12, 2020 - 4:07 am)Thank you
GODFREY NYATIGI
(October 9, 2019 - 5:22 am)WONDERFUL INFORMATION. INFORMATIVE
siva alluri
(October 10, 2019 - 3:51 pm)Welcome
Shekhar nishad
(November 22, 2019 - 9:38 pm)Sir,
Why tail pipe lenght is 10.5 meter in condensor.
siva alluri
(November 23, 2019 - 5:21 am)liquid in the barometer is water (water used in condenser not mercury), the height of the column should
be of the order of 10 meters (instead of 76 cm)
0.76 m X 13.6 = 10.33 m
where 13.6 = density of mercury relative to water.
Sanjaykumar Badiger
(April 13, 2020 - 9:37 am)Very nice app
siva alluri
(April 26, 2020 - 11:59 am)Thank you
Manish
(June 22, 2021 - 4:19 pm)Pls tell me about steam balance at quad
Vilas patil
(August 15, 2021 - 12:47 am)Very very useful information
Ranjeeth N
(August 10, 2022 - 11:17 am)If colour effect on hot water given to massecuite(or) wht are the effects on massecuite