Formulas to Find Juice Heater and Evaporator vapour Line Dia
Juice Heater Vapour Inlet Line Dia:
Required Data For Calculation:
1. Crushing Rate in TCH
2. Juice Percentage ( P) ( Like Mixed juice % cane , Sulphited juice% Cane, Clear juice% cane)
3. Specific heat of juice in Kcal/kg/^{o}C ( Cp )
The specific heat of sucrose solutions is given by the equation:
Cp = 1 – 0.006 B
B = brix of the solution. ( This equation is close approximation)
This formula may be applied without serious error to juices, syrups, and molasses of different purities.)

 a) Juice inlet temperature ( Ti ) in ^{o}C
 b) Juice outlet temperature ( To ) in ^{o}C
 c) Juice heater inlet vapour Temperature ( Tv) in oC
 d) Juice Heater inlet vapour velocity ( V ) in m/sec
 e) Latent heat of vapour of inlet vapour ( λ ) in Kcal/ kg ( It taken from the steam table)
 f) Specific Volume of inlet Vapour (Sp) in M^{3}/kg ( It taken from the steam table)
Formula for Calculation:
Heat received by juice = Heat rejected by vapour
Qj x Cp x ΔT = W x λ
 Qj = Quantity of the juice in kg/hr (TCH x P x 1000/100)
 ΔT = To – Ti
 W = Required vapour quantity for juice heating getting in kg/hr after that it is to be converted into M^{3}/sec by multiplying the specific volume of vapour
( Note : For equipment flexibility purposes it is better to consider 10% extra vapour on actual requirement )
I.e [ Qw = (W x Sp x 1.1) /3600]
Dia of vapour Line = SQRT [ Qw / (0.785 x Velocity of vapour) ]
Evaporator Body Vapour Inlet and Out Line Dia:
Required Data For Calculation:
 a) Evaporator Body Heating Surface ( H ) in m^{2}
 b) Evaporation Rate of the body ( E ) in Kg/ hr/ m^{2 }( To take maximum value for calculating the vapour lines)
 c) Temperature of evaporator body Inlet vapour ( Ti ) in ^{o}C
 d) Temperature of evaporator body outlet vapour (To ) in ^{o}C
 f) Velocity of evaporator body inlet vapour (V i) in m/sec
 g) Velocity of evaporator body outlet vapour (V o) in m/sec
Evaporator Bodies Vapour Velocities Recommended by E.Hugot
Triple in m/sec  Quadruple in m/sec  Quintuple in m/sec  
Min  Max  Min  Max  Min  Max  
Exhaust steam to 1st effect  25  30  25  30  25  30 
Vapour from 1st effect  30  35  30  35  30  35 
Vapour from 2nd effect  40  45  35  40  30  35 
Vapour from 3rd effect  50  60  40  45  35  40 
Vapour from 4th effect  50  60  40  45  
Vapour from 5th effect  50  60 
As Per E.Hugot Apparent Heat Transfer Coefficients for Evaporator Bodies
Kcal/m^{2}/^{o}C/hr  
Triple Effect  Quadruple Effect  Quintuple Effect  
Min  Max  Min  Max  Min  Max  
1st effect  2000  2500  2000  2400  2000  2400 
2nd effect  1500  1800  1400  1800  1400  1800 
3rd effect  800  1000  1000  1400  1300  1500 
4th effect  600  800  800  1000  
5th effect  500  600 
E.Hugot recommended for Evaporation Rate of The Several Vessels of a multiple effect working under the condition of temperature drop from 120^{o}C to 55^{o}C
Triple Effect  Quadruple Effect  Quintuple Effect  
Kg/m^{2}/hr  Lb/Ft^{2}/hr  Kg/m^{2}/hr  Lb/Ft^{2}/hr  Kg/m^{2}/hr  Lb/Ft^{2}/hr  
1st effect  53  11  37  7.6  28  5.7 
2nd effect  48  9.8  35  7.2  26  5.3 
3rd effect  43  8.8  32  6.6  25  5.1 
4th effect  28  5.7  25  5.1  
5th effect  17  3.5 
For General Consideration of evaporation rate taken for calculations
Quadruple Effect in Kg/m^{2}/hr  Quintuple Effect in Kg/m^{2}/hr  
Max  Min  Max  Min  
1st effect  35  30  35  30 
2nd effect  30  25  30  25 
3rd effect  25  20  25  20 
4th effect  25  20  20  15 
5th effect  15  10 
Formulas for calculation:
The specific volume of evaporator body inlet vapour ( Si ) in M^{3}/kg(Taken from steam table)
The specific volume of evaporator body Outlet vapour ( So ) in M^{3}/kg (Taken from steam table)
Volume of evaporator body inlet vapour in M^{3}/sec = [ (H x E x Si) /3600]
Volume of evaporator body outlet vapour in M^{3}/sec = [ (H x E x So) /3600]
( Note: For equipment flexibility purposes it is better to consider 10% extra vapour on actual requirement )
Dia of vapour Line = SQRT [ Volume of vapour / (0.785 x Velocity of vapour) ]
(SQRT = square root)
Online Calculator for Juice Heater Vapour Pipe Dia
Online Calculator for Evaporator Vapour Pipe Dia
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