Juice Clarifier Flash Tank construction parameters with online calculator
About Flash tank
1) Clarifiers are normally preceded by a flash tank. This is a simple cylindrical tank located just above and ahead of the clarifier, with a flue open to the atmosphere. Now days according to energy conservation the flue also used for filter juice or clear juice heating. General in flash tank design juice enters in tangential direction from the juice heaters. In some flash tank designs juice entry will be giving into center of flash tank. In this article discussed about tangential entry type flash tank design.
2) It is important to heat the juice to above the boiling point and allow it to flash. This enables any air in the juice to be removed, and ensures that the juice runs at a constant temperature to the clarifier. In the process any air entrapped in particles of bagasse or bagacillo also escapes, enabling these particles to settle and not carry over with the clarified juice.
3) The extent of superheating required does not seem to be critical. It is generally thought that a control set point 2-3 oC above boiling point should be used, so that even with some excursions around the set point, the juice will always be delivered superheated to the flash tank. Temperatures above this are deemed to be unnecessary and only increase the amount of steam used in the factory.
4) Temperatures much higher than design could lead to excessive flash that the flash tank may not be able to handle, leading to entrainment and loss of sugar from the flash tank. Generally the temperature should never exceed 1050C.
Flash tank design formulas :
The dia of the flash tank should be based on the maximum liquid flow rate that the flash tank will receive. The amount of flash at maximum flow rate needs to be computed, and the diameter chosen to prevent entrainment of liquid. This requires an estimate of the maximum allowable upward velocity the in flash tank. The Souders-Brown equation for the design velocity is used;
Umax = C x [ (ρ L – ρV)/ ρV]0.5
The value of the maximum velocity Umax is given in m/s. The value of the constant C is a measure of the droplet size that will be carried over and depends on the degree of separation of liquid and vapor required.
According to Perry (1963), for a decontamination factor (kg vapor/kg liquid) of 10000, C should have the value 0.0060 m/s,
- Flash tank Juice inlet Quantity to the flash tank = M in T/hr
- Juice Inlet Temperature = Ti in oC
- Juice outlet Temperature = To in oC
- Specific heat of the juice = Cp in kcal/kg
- Juice Density = ρ L in kg/M3
- Flash vapour Density = ρ V in kg/M3
- Juice Inlet velocity to the flash tank = Vi in m/sec (Juice inlet velocity to flash tank generally having 1.5 to 1.8 m/sec)
- Juice outlet velocity to the flash tank = Vo in m/sec (Juice outlet velocity from flash tank generally having 0.6 to 1 m/sec)
- Flash vapour velocity in vent pipe = Vv in m/sec (Flash vapour velocity in vent pipe generally having 4 to 10 m/sec)
- Latent heat of the Flash Vapour = λ in Kcal/Kg
- Specific Volume of the flash tank = Sp in M3/Kg
- Coefficient = 0.006 m/sec (Note : Refer Cane Sugar Engineering by peter rein )
- Specific volume and latent of the flash vapour to be taken from steam table. Online Steam Table For Saturated steam (Note :Latent heat taken at inlet juice temperature and specific heat value was taking for the average juice inlet and outlet temperature.)
- Velocity of flash vapour in flash tank(m/sec) = Umax = C x [ (ρ L – ρV)/ ρV]0.5
- Flash vapour Quantity (T/hr) = [ M x Cp x (Ti-To)]/ λ
- Flash vapour Qty. (M3/Sec) = Q
- Flash Tank Dia = By using general formula Q = AV (here velocity taken Umax)
- Flash Tank Juice inlet Dia = By using general formula Q = AV( here velocity to be take Vi)
- Flash tank Vapour Vent Pipe Dia = By using general formula Q = AV( here velocity to be take Vv)
- Flash tank juice outlet Dia = By using general formula Q =AV( here velocity to be take Vo)
- The flash tank juice outlet line size is particularly important, It should be sized to be self-venting, at the maximum liquid flow rate. So the dia to be cross check by the formula D > 1.116 (Q)0.4 Here D is dia of the juice outlet pipe and Q is juice quantity in M3/sec.
- The inlet of the juice to be provide in tangential direction.
- In side of the flash tank it is better to provide partition plates, at just below of the inlet of the juice to reduce the velocity and steady outlet flow of the juice.
- The bottom cone angle of the flash tank generally having 30 to 35deg and top of the flash tank having flat type or minimum cone angle is about 15 to 20deg.
- The cone of the flash tank should be positioned at the minimum height above the clarifier that will allow juice outlet from a short stub with 90° bend and the appropriate length of horizontal feed pipe to the clarifier. The juice pipe from the flash tank to the clarifier must include a drain line,
- The height of the flash having 1 to 1.5 times on dia for general flash tank designs.
Flash Tank Design Calculation Sheet
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