Juice Defecator and Juice Sulphitor Design Criteria | Online Calculator

Design Calculation of Juice Defecator and Sulphitor with online calculator

In this article explained about juice defecator and juice sulphitor calculations like diameter, overflow height, find the shock lime point  etc.

Juice reaction vessels (Defecator or Sulphitor)

a) For better juice clarification and excellent mud settling rate, the juice defecation and sulphitation reaction vessels play a key role. This reaction vessel is the heart of the overall juice clarification station.

b) In Juice sulphitor reaction vessel having the connection of  milk of lime and SO2 gas but in defector only having milk of lime connection. This is the major deference for both systems. The remaining design criteria for both reaction vessels are the same.

c) Juice liming only is done in the vessel called as juice defecator.

d) Juice liming and sulphitation are done in the vessel called as Juice sulphiter.  Where the juice after passing the mass flow meter and heating to 70 to 75oC.  Comes in contact with lime and sulphur dioxide gas. The juice entry from the top of the gas absorbance tower and then enters into the bottom of the juice sulphiter. After being contact with lime and SO2 gas from about 7 to 8 minutes it over flow into Subjected juice receiving tank. The quantities of lime and sulphur dioxide depend upon the pH of the juice.

The design of a sulphitation/defection unit of great importance and needs the consideration from all angles. The design of the unit should ensure the following requirements.

The juice sulphiter vessel is normally provided with stirrer, milk of lime inlet, SO2 gas sparger , SO2 gas absorption tower, milk of lime dosing tank , preliming tank(depend upon design), treated juice over flow box, test or sample cocks and liquidation valves etc.


a) Retention or contact of juice with lime and gas must be given a sufficient time to complete precipitation.

b) It is generally take for both reaction vessels having 7 to 8 minutes.


a) Stirrer speed should be low because of floc break  avoiding. Gentle agitation is utmost importance to bring about maximum flocculation.

b) The RPM of the stirrer having 16 to 24. While providing the baffle arrangement in the vessel then rpm lies 16 to 18 and with out baffles the rpm goes upto 20 to 24.

c) In some reaction vessel designs not having the stirrer arrangement. In this type of design having two to three compartment. While juice passing through this compartments, it can be mixed proper and completed reaction.

Lime entry

a) Lime dosing is the one of the main design unit for the reaction vessel. As per the method of reaction the lime entry will be arranged.

b) For shock lime method lime entry point will be provide 8 to 10 secs before entry of the juice into the reaction vessel.

c) In simultaneous method lime entry to be provide just before or near to SO2 gas distribution system.

Juice over flow:

There should be a gutter on the periphery for the out let of juice. The gutter volume should be cover the total  juice flow rate at the outlet point. (i.e The juice collection from the vessel to be cover equally overflow from the all sides).

Hydrostatic head :

This should be 2.0 to 2.4 meter. i.e juice column height(juice overflow height) in the reaction vessel .  Normally here bottom cone height not consider.

SO2 distribution system: (For juice sulphitor)

a) Distribution of the SO2 gas in juice sulphitation tanks one of the major important criteria for getting better clarification.

b) The SO2 gas distribution system mainly two types of designs. Sparger type SO2 gas distribution system and Cross Type gas distribution system.

c) Generally Sparger type SO2 gas distribution system is preferable of  smaller diameter type reaction vessels and Cross Type gas distribution system for larger diameter vessels.

d) Total cross section area of gas distribution holes should be 150 to 200 % of main SO2 gas line. Hole size shall be as small as possible. It should not be larger 25 to 30mm. When compare to larger diameter SO2 gas bubble, the smaller dia of the SO2 gas bubbles having higher surface area to contact the juice.

Gas Absorbance tower:

a) The function of this tower can be defined as to absorbed the residual SO2 left over in the gas after completing the reaction in the main vessel.

b) It reduces the consumption of sulphur and also to give the effect of partial presulphitation.

c) The SO2 gas is quickly absorbed in the juice while traveling in upward direction. In this design provide baffle arrangement for proper contact of juice and residual SO2 gas. The diameter and number of baffles to be provide on the basis about minimum 10secs of contact time.

Sampling Points:

Sampling point shall be provide for shock lime and final juice to continuously checking the pH.

Comparision of defecation and sulphitation process :

a) As the defecation process is only used for the manufacture of raw sugar and sulphitation process can be applied to produce planitation white sugar. (i. e The sulphitation is the single step of clarification system to get the good colour of the sugar)

b) Defacation process is the oldest method of the juice clarification . sulphitation  process is the 3rd development of the juice clarification .

c) Defecation process is the cheapest than sulphitation process.

d) Sulphitation process results  in a superior  purification of the juice than defecation due to the removal of a greater quantity of non sugars, collides etc.

e) CaO content of clear juice in defecation process is in the range of 90ppm to 120ppm where as in sulphitation process,the range is 400ppm to 600ppm. The very low CaO content in defecation process results in drastic reduction of scaling at evaporators.

f) The lime consumption in defecation ( 0.1 – 0.12% on cane ) is less than the sulphitation process (0.15 to 0.20% on cane).

Juice sulphitor- Juice defecator design

Design of the Juice reaction vessel ( Calculate with example).

Dia of the juice reaction vessel ( D )  (Defecator / Sulphitor )

Required Data:

Crushing capacity – 5000TCD = 5000/22 = 227 TCH  (Calculate 22 hrs basis).

Juice % to inlet of reaction Vessel (Defecator or sulphitor)  = 115%

Reaction Time = 7 minutes.

Juice column height in the reaction vessel ( H )(Generally bottom cone height not consider) = 2.2meters ( 2 to 2.4mtr )

Specific volume of the juice = 1.06 gm/ml3.

Calculation Part:

Volume of the juice in T/ hr = Crushing rate x Juice % = 227 x 115% = 261.05 T/hr.

Volume of the juice in M3/min.  = Volume of the juice (T/hr) / ( 60 x Specific volume of the juice).

= 261.05 / (60 x 1.06) = 4.10456 M3/min.

Volume of juice for given retention time ( V ) =4.10456 x 7 = 28.73192 M3

Holding Volume of the reaction vessel ( V ) = (π/4) x D2 x H

D2 = 28.73192 /( 2.2 x 0.785) = 16.6369

D = 4.0788 mtr = 4100mm.

Find the Retention time of the existing Reaction vessel (Defecator / Sulphitor)

Required Data:

Crushing capacity – 5000TCD = 5000/24 = 208 TCH  (Calculate 24 hrs basis).

Juice % to inlet of reaction Vessel (Defecator or sulphitor)  = 115%

Dia of the reaction tank ( D )= 4.2 meters

Reaction Time ( T ) = ?  minutes.

Juice column height in the reaction vessel ( H )(Generally bottom cone height not consider) = 2.1meters

Specific volume of the juice = 1.06 gm/ml3.

Calculation Part:

Juice reaction tank holding volume ( V ) = (π/4) x D2 x H = 0.785 x (4.2)2 x 2.1 = 29.0795 M3

Juice \ flow \ rate\ in \ (M3 /sec) \ = \ \frac{TCH \times Juice %}{{3600 \times Juice \ density}}

Juice flow rate ( F )  = (208 x 115% ) / (3600 x 1.06 ) = 0.0626833 M3 /sec.

Retention Time =  V / F = 29.0795/0.0626833 = 463.9 sec = 7.7 minutes.

Find the shock lime point for  juice sulphitor

Required Data:

Crushing capacity – 5000TCD = 5000/24 = 208 TCH  (Calculate 24 hrs basis).

Juice % to inlet of reaction Vessel (Defecator or sulphitor)  = 115%

Dia of the juice inlet line (after the SO2 gas  absorption tower)  ( D )= 400mm

Shock lime reaction time ( T ) = 10 sec (8 to 10 sec)

Specific volume of the juice = 1.06 gm/ml3.

Shock lime point through out the juice inlet  ( H )=  Distance between Juice inlet of the vessel to shock lime point.


Calculate juice volume for give 10 sec time M ( V )

Juice \ volume \ in \ (M3 ) \ = \ \frac{TCH \times Juice % \ \times T \ in \ sec }{{3600 \times Juice \ density}}

Juice Volume  ( V  )  = (208 x 115% x 10) / (3600 x 1.06 ) = 0.626833 M3 / 10 sec.

V = (π/4) x D2 x H

H = V / [ (π/4) x D ]

H = 0.626833 / (0.785 x 0.4 x 0.4 ) = 4.991 meter.

i.e Shock lime point to be provide from the juice inlet point to 4991mm distance,  throughout the juice inlet pipe line.

SO2 Gas distribution system opening area calculation

( sparger or cross type SO2 gas system holes opening calculation)

Required Data

SO2 gas inlet line dia ( D ) = 200mm

Generally the sparger opening area to be take 150 to 200% on the gas inlet line cross sectional area

Here Considered  200% and calculate for both distribution systems

For better SO2 gas distribution hole size of the sparger shall be not more then 40mm and for cross type SO2 gas distribution system shall be not more than 30mm. At the same time smaller holes diameter, higher the possibility of jamming may be takes place.

For Sparger Type : The hole size is better to take progressively increased as 20, 25, 30 & 38mm diameter otherwise it is to be take equal size.  At the top of the sparger one hole of 40 to 45mm diameter may also be provide to ascertain complete SO2 gas removal.

Total holes opening area (A )= Gas inlet line cross sectional area x 200% = (π/4) x D2 = 0.785 x 0.2 x 0.2  x 200%= 0.0628 m2

Consider here 50% cross section area shall be provided of the below 25mm dia holes.

Choose the size of the holes and number of holes as per  accommodate in the sparger area.

20mm size 50no.s, = 0.785 x 0.02 x 0.02 x 50 = 0.0157 m2

25mm size 45nos = 0.785 x 0.025 x 0.025 x 45 = 0.022078 m2

32 mm size 30 no.s = 0.785 x 0.032 x 0.032 x 50 = 0.024115 m2

40 mm size 1 no. = 0.785 x 0.04 x 0.04 x 1 = 0.001256 m2

Total holes opening area = 0.63149 m2

For cross type SO2 gas distribution system : In this system SO2 gas distribution holes diameter shall be not more than 30mm. For inlet gas branch line to be take less number of holes (Single row) and for remaining branch line to be take double row holes.

Total  required number of holes (Each Hole size 20mm) = 0.0628 / (0.785 x 0.02 x 0.02) = 200 no.s

SO2 gas distribution system in juice sulphitor design

Online Calculator for Design of Juice Sulphitor / Juice Defecator

Note : In this calculator provided four sheets regardin

a) Calculate reaction tank dia.

b) Calculation of reaction time for existing juice reaction tank.

c) Calculation of overflow juice height for existing reaction vessel

d) Finding the shock lime point for juice sulphitor.

Click Here


Related Topics

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Concepts of Juice Defecation Process and its Mechanization

Phosphoric Acid(H3PO4) in sugar process industry and online calculator to find required dosing quantity in kgs and also find present going condition in PPM.

Formulas and design consideration parameters in Robert Evaporator Design and also provided online calculation sheet with formulas

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Post Author: siva alluri

The aim of this Blog "sugarprocesstech" is Providing basic to advance knowledge in sugar process industry and providing maximum calculation regarding capacity and equipment design online calculators .

7 thoughts on “Juice Defecator and Juice Sulphitor Design Criteria | Online Calculator

    Dr Praveen mishra

    (November 11, 2018 - 9:12 pm)

    Extent information

    Dr Praveen mishra

    (November 11, 2018 - 9:24 pm)

    Very useful for how to gett this type of book
    Pls advice me

    mukesh gupta

    (March 26, 2019 - 5:07 pm)

    can i calculate lime consumption according to pH value of of raw juice. If raw juice pH is 5.4

    Birendra Das

    (April 20, 2019 - 10:25 am)

    Can you please guide me on designing juice defector for back end refineries please.


    (October 4, 2020 - 3:17 am)

    What is the clarification performance like turbidity and color reduction and other performance in cane juice clarification of defecation method.


    (December 8, 2020 - 7:52 am)

    can you help me sir…
    i want to know about design so2 tower in india sugar factori

    Sudhir Patil

    (January 16, 2023 - 9:19 am)

    How the power of required to drive the sulphitor starer is calculated

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