Color, Solids and Purity Balance of Refined Sugar Massecuite Boiling

This article is given a general idea about color, Solid and purity balance and intermediate product colors in Refined Sugar Massecuite Boiling.

Intermediate Products Color, Solids  and Purity of Crystallization in Sugar Refinery Process

Pan Boiling/Crystallization Scheme of refined sugar

a) This fine liquor obtained from second decolurization process is evaporate in falling film evaporator upto 70-75o brix is called as concentrated fine liquor.

b) The concentrated liquor from melt concentration is pumped to the pan supply tanks for feed to pans. The liquor is boiled in vacuum pan for crystallization.

c) For refined massecuite boiling, vacuum pan should be of low head with fast natural circulation, rapid boiling calendria.

d) First boiling uses concentrated fine (decolorized) liquor as feed and syrup separated from this massecuite is used as feed for second boiling, syrup from second boiling is feed for third, and so on.

e) Refined massecuite (R1, R2 & R3 grades) are discharged from vacuum pans to enclosed receiver and then to refined sugar centrifugal distributor. According to requirement of final blended sugar quality R4 grade sugar also divert to bagging.

f) For Producing of M sugar use R2 and R3 sugar taken as footing material of R1 massecuite boiling and Dry seed taken as footing material of R2 and R3 massecuite boiling.

g) R3 or R4 massecuite runoff and surplus raw washing are processed in three massecuite boiling system (Rec1/A , Rec2/B & Rec3/C grades) to produce final molasses.

h) Runoff from R3/R4 grade massecuite is feed of Rec1 or A massecuite boiling. Rec1 runoff is used for boiling Rec2. Similarly, Rec2 syrup is used for Rec3 boiling.

i) Rec 1 sugar is melted and sent to clarification along with raw melt. Rec2 and Rec3 sugar is melted and recycled to Rec1 boiling. Some quantity of final molasses is also recycled to Rec3 massecuite boiling according to purity  of Rec3 runoff (final molasses).

Color transfer to the crystal, or alternatively the fraction of color included in the crystal, is different in raw sugar mills compared to refineries, because of the different spectrum of colorants in the liquor from which the sugar is crystallized.

In refinery, color formation from feed liquor to dropping massecuite was found to be directly related to boiling time, temperature of the boiling massecuite and aeration of liquor. Generally, color formation was found to double with an increase in temperature of 10oC. Faster boiling with mechanical circulators will minimize color formation.

 Some guidelines for refined sugar massecuite colour balance.

a) Mass balance of massecuite to dry sugar is vary from 55% to 65% depends on final dropping brix and purity of pan discharged massecuite.

b) The crystal content is limited to 55 to 60% by the need to have enough mother liquor to fill the gaps between the crystals, plus a small excess to provide fluidity.

c) After centrifuging the massecuite, overall yield from massecuite to dry solids will be 50 to 55% in refined massecuite.

d) Color increase during boiling of massecuite from feed liquor will be around 5% to 10%. The incorporation of color from feed liquor into the sugar in three ways.

i) Co-crystallization with sucrose

ii) Adsorption on the crystal surface

iii) By being trapped in a liquid inclusion in the crystal.

e) Color Transfer: This term is used to describe the incorporation of color into the sucrose crystal during crystallization. It can be defined as the ratio of color of the affinated crystal to the color of pan feed.

f) The color transfer to the crystal is different in the raw sugar massecuite boiling compared to refined massecuite boiling.

g) Colour transfer from refined massecuite to sugar will be in the range of 4% to 10%. The rate of colour transfer will depends as follows.

i) Process chosen for raw melt first and second decolourization process

ii) Grade of massecuite ( i.e R1, R2, R3 & R4 ).

iii) Non sugar percentage in massecuite ( i.e massecuite purity).

Take an example of refined sugar four massecuite boiling ( R1, R2, R3 & R4 )


Concentrated fine liquor colour 180 IU & Purity 99.4%
Take four massecuite boiling R1, R2, R3 and R4
Crystal Yield for R1 & R2 – 55% , R3 & R4 – 52%
Colour ratio from massecuite to sugar for R1 – 10% , & R2 – 8% , R3 – 6% & R4 – 5%
Colour gain from pan feed liquor to massecuite – 105%

Refined Sugar Purity – 99.9

Now calculate colour Balance and colour of intermediate products in Refinery Sugar massecuite boiling

Strike – 1: R1 massecuite

Melt Solids – 100

R1 massecuite colour – 180 x 105% = 189 IU

R1 Sugar solids – 100 x 55% = 55

R1 Sugar Colour – 189 x 10% = 18.9 IU

Purity of R1 runoff  (P1) = (100 x 99.4 = 55 x 99.9 + 45 x P1 ) 

P1 =  98.8

Colour of R1 runoff  (C1) – (100 x 189 = 55 x 18.9 + 45 x C1 )

C1 = 397

Strike – 2: R2 massecuite

R1 runoff solids – 45

R2 massecuite colour – 397 x 105% = 417 IU

R2 Sugar solids – 45 x 55% = 24.8

R2 Sugar Colour – 417 x 8% = 33.3 IU

Purity of R2 runoff (P2)– (45 x 98.5 = 24.75 x 99.9 + 20.25 x P2 )

P2 = 97.43

Colour of R2 runoff (C2)- (45 x 417 = 24.75 x 33.4 + 20.25 x C2 )

C2 = 885

Strike – 3: R3 massecuite

R2 runoff solids – 20.25

R3 massecuite colour – 885 x 105% = 930 IU

R3 Sugar solids – 20.25 x 52% = 10.53

R3 Sugar Colour – 929 x 6% = 55.8 IU

Purity of R3 runoff (P3)– (20.25 x 96.66 = 10.53 x 100 + 9.72 x P3)

P3 = 94.76

Colour of R3 runoff – (20.25 x 929 = 10.53 x 55.7 + 9.72 x C3 )

C3 = 1876

Strike – 4: R4 massecuite

R3 runoff solids – 9.72

R4 massecuite colour – 1875 x 105% = 1969 IU

R4 Sugar solids – 9.72 x 52% = 5.05

R4 Sugar Colour – 1969 x 5% = 98.45 IU

Purity of R4 runoff (P4)– (9.72 x 93.04 = 5.05 x 100 + 4.67 x P4)

P4 = 89.18

Colour of R4 runoff (C4) – (9.72 x 1969 = 5.05 x 98.45 + 4.67 x C4 )

C4 = 3802

colour, Solid and purity balance and intermediate product colors in Refined Sugar Massecuite BoilingOnline Calculator for Color, Solids and Purity Balance of Refined Sugar Massecuite Boiling

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Post Author: siva alluri

The aim of this Blog "sugarprocesstech" is Providing basic to advance knowledge in sugar process industry and providing maximum calculation regarding capacity and equipment design online calculators .

11 thoughts on “Color, Solids and Purity Balance of Refined Sugar Massecuite Boiling


    (October 22, 2019 - 8:30 am)

    get some more details…

    Rahul kumar

    (January 6, 2020 - 2:11 pm)

    Sir krne ka koi exm


    (March 24, 2020 - 3:52 pm)


      siva alluri

      (March 29, 2020 - 11:51 am)

      OK now once go through this again. It will be clear

      Santosh S Akale

      (January 20, 2022 - 6:55 pm)

      I also not understanding sir

        siva alluri

        (February 5, 2022 - 7:56 am)

        Ok we will publish detailed article on this topic


    (July 27, 2020 - 5:08 pm)

    Please tell colour balance for good. Quality of sugar below 90 IU
    Pj,mj,cj,uss,ssy. Am|s,B m|s,cm|c ,bsugar.caw,sugar,melt,al,ah etc.


    (September 18, 2020 - 8:17 am)

    HTC in evap body how to find out sir

      siva alluri

      (September 18, 2020 - 1:02 pm)

      For calculation HTC in evaporator bodies having different formulas.

      In that Dessin formula is one of popular formula to find the HTC in evaporator bodies.

      Dessin proposed a formula permitting the evaporation coefficient to be calculated for any vessel of a multiple effect:

      C = 0.001 (100 – B) (T – 54)

      C = specific evaporation coefficient for the evaporator, in kg of vapour/ m2/oC/hr

      B = Brix of the juice leaving the vessel

      T = temperature of the heating steam in the calendria, in °C (°F).

      (Note: To get better result from the above formula to be take in the place of coefficient 0.001 as follow as

      For 1st effect = 0.001,

      2nd effect = 0.0009,

      3rd effect= 0.0009,

      4th effect = 0.0008,

      5th effect = 0.0008).

      Here we obtained Evaporation coefficient

      We multiplying the vapour latent heat for that particular body in Kcal/kg with Evaporation coefficient to Calculation the Overall heat transfer coefficient in Kcal/m2/0C/Hr

      Please go through the below link

    R K Sehrawat

    (May 25, 2021 - 6:16 am)

    Pl provided solid and color balance for refinery with calculating syrup, raw massecuite , b massecuite and c massecuite . only R1 sugar is produce with IU22 .


    (December 3, 2021 - 3:17 am)

    Please suggest sulphitation and boiling scheme when mixed juice colour is more than 30000 IU for making sugar colour less than 100IU

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